I expected to have seen a bold chain of mountains crossing
9. Some there are who make a distinction betwixt primary and secondary qualities. By the former they mean extension, figure, motion, rest, solidity or impenetrability, and number; by the latter they denote all other sensible qualities, as colours, sounds, tastes, and so forth. The ideas we have of these they acknowledge not to be the resemblances of anything existing without the mind, or unperceived, but they will have our ideas of the primary qualities to be patterns or images of things which exist without the mind, in an unthinking substance which they call Matter. By Matter, therefore, we are to understand an inert, senseless substance, in which extension, figure, and motion do actually subsist. But it is evident from what we have already shown, that extension, figure, and motion are only ideas existing in the mind, and that an idea can be like nothing but another idea, and that consequently neither they nor their archetypes can exist in an unperceiving substance. Hence, it is plain that that the very notion of what is called Matter or corporeal substance, involves a contradiction in it.
10. They who assert that figure, motion, and the rest of the primary or original qualities do exist without the mind in unthinking substances, do at the same time acknowledge that colours, sounds, heat cold, and suchlike secondary qualities, do not- which they tell us are sensations existing in the mind alone, that depend on and are occasioned by the different size, texture, and motion of the minute particles of matter. This they take for an undoubted truth, which they can demonstrate beyond all exception. Now, if it be certain that those original qualities are inseparably united with the other sensible qualities, and not, even in thought, capable of being abstracted from them, it plainly follows that they exist only in the mind. But I desire any one to reflect and try whether he can, by any abstraction of thought, conceive the extension and motion of a body without all other sensible qualities. For my own part, I see evidently that it is not in my power to frame an idea of a body extended and moving, but I must withal give it some colour or other sensible quality which is acknowledged to exist only in the mind. In short, extension, figure, and motion, abstracted from all other qualities, are inconceivable. Where therefore the other sensible qualities are, there must these be also, to wit, in the mind and nowhere else.
11. Again, great and small, swift and slow, are allowed to exist nowhere without the mind, being entirely relative, and changing as the frame or position of the organs of sense varies. The extension therefore which exists without the mind is neither great nor small, the motion neither swift nor slow, that is, they are nothing at all. But, say you, they are extension in general, and motion in general: thus we see how much the tenet of extended movable substances existing without the mind depends on the strange doctrine of abstract ideas. And here I cannot but remark how nearly the vague and indeterminate description of Matter or corporeal substance, which the modern philosophers are run into by their own principles, resembles that antiquated and so much ridiculed notion of materia prima, to be met with in Aristotle and his followers. Without extension solidity cannot be conceived; since therefore it has been shewn that extension exists not in an unthinking substance, the same must also be true of solidity.
12. That number is entirely the creature of the mind, even though the other qualities be allowed to exist without, will be evident to whoever considers that the same thing bears a different denomination of number as the mind views it with different respects. Thus, the same extension is one, or three, or thirty-six, according as the mind considers it with reference to a yard, a foot, or an inch. Number is so visibly relative, and dependent on men's understanding, that it is strange to think how any one should give it an absolute existence without the mind. We say one book, one page, one line, etc.; all these are equally units, though some contain several of the others. And in each instance, it is plain, the unit relates to some particular combination of ideas arbitrarily put together by the mind.
13. Unity I know some will have to be a simple or uncompounded idea, accompanying all other ideas into the mind. That I have any such idea answering the word unity I do not find; and if I had, methinks I could not miss finding it: on the contrary, it should be the most familiar to my understanding, since it is said to accompany all other ideas, and to be perceived by all the ways of sensation and reflexion. To say no more, it is an abstract idea.
14. I shall farther add, that, after the same manner as modern philosophers prove certain sensible qualities to have no existence in Matter, or without the mind, the same thing may be likewise proved of all other sensible qualities whatsoever. Thus, for instance, it is said that heat and cold are affections only of the mind, and not at all patterns of real beings, existing in the corporeal substances which excite them, for that the same body which appears cold to one hand seems warm to another. Now, why may we not as well argue that figure and extension are not patterns or resemblances of qualities existing in Matter, because to the same eye at different stations, or eyes of a different texture at the same station, they appear various, and cannot therefore be the images of anything settled and determinate without the mind? Again, it is proved that sweetness is not really in the sapid thing, because the thing remaining unaltered the sweetness is changed into bitter, as in case of a fever or otherwise vitiated palate. Is it not as reasonable to say that motion is not without the mind, since if the succession of ideas in the mind become swifter, the motion, it is acknowledged, shall appear slower without any alteration in any external object?
15. In short, let any one consider those arguments which are thought manifestly to prove that colours and taste exist only in the mind, and he shall find they may with equal force be brought to prove the same thing of extension, figure, and motion. Though it must be confessed this method of arguing does not so much prove that there is no extension or colour in an outward object, as that we do not know by sense which is the true extension or colour of the object. But the arguments foregoing plainly shew it to be impossible that any colour or extension at all, or other sensible quality whatsoever, should exist in an unthinking subject without the mind, or in truth, that there should be any such thing as an outward object.
16. But let us examine a little the received opinion.- It is said extension is a mode or accident of Matter, and that Matter is the substratum that supports it. Now I desire that you would explain to me what is meant by Matter's supporting extension. Say you, I have no idea of Matter and therefore cannot explain it. I answer, though you have no positive, yet, if you have any meaning at all, you must at least have a relative idea of Matter; though you know not what it is, yet you must be supposed to know what relation it bears to accidents, and what is meant by its supporting them. It is evident "support" cannot here be taken in its usual or literal sense- as when we say that pillars support a building; in what sense therefore must it be taken?
- Behind a great flowering shrub Hanson lay gazing at the
- promised $1,200 for two years and they wanted the second
- at the piano and sang for us until two in the morning.
- no checkbooks and had brought only enough cash to pay the
- could trust. To them he explained his plans and the rich
- his children again. In harsher language, my friend George
- to them about it later, our relationship never recovered.
- couldnt do that, for two reasons. First, I didnt want to
- church bell by guess. The arrival of our boats was a rare
- Command called me to say that there had been an explosion
- thought their arguments were particularly weak, but the
- of Economic Development, to reflect its new, broader scope
- stars and waiting. He had lain thus and there many nights
- to do a poll to see if there was anything we could do to
- a meeting in Little Rock. I was determined to avoid the
- or inquiries from out of state. My friend John Y. Brown,
- which swirled fully three feet of water, which, slowly
- and federal money to buy electric fans, rent air conditioners,
- at all. I signed the bill. It was the single dumbest mistake
- day of politics when the commander of the Strategic Air
- Was it, though, the ever beautiful blossoms of hollyhocks
- roads and making money. A lot of legislators listened to
- been to surgeries with Mother and that they could cut Hillary
- ticket, because of Fort Chaffee. Carter got 28 percent.
- in all the finer points of big game hunting. Of an evening
- by its senior member, Max Howell, who was liberal on education
- We still have a base at Guantnamo, dont we? And there must
- Chuck Manatt wanted it badly and probably already had the
- the moving ray. Inhaling sibilantly, Max leaped after her.
- clear rural roads, and pull vehicles out of ditches. In
- with a strong voice-over telling viewers that the governors
- that humans did not evolve out of other species around
- the leadership of each to men whom he believed that he
- were not satisfied by my appointment of Jim Dyke, a successful
- the Rose Law Firm to run the Governors Mansion for us,
- tags. Six percent of my former supporters said it was because
- And thus matters stood when, one hot night, Meriem, unable
- have to get my votes in the cities now. When I asked him
- We badly wanted to have a child and had been trying for
- into the Governors Mansion and worked every day with my
- resources were at an end; it must be another's work to
- my everlasting gratitude and some legal business defending
- and thought it was best for him to be gracious, so that
- it to San Francisco. Soon after we got home, Hillary found
- reason we have seen so many parrots lately; the cheucau
- protect the people around the fort. As we all know now,
- The experience sparked my abiding interest in moving toward
- and farmers whose fields had burned up. The roads were
- the sailors bought with a stick of tobacco, of the value
- I took him on a tour of Barling. It was well after midnight,