coast. From this first slope the view of the extensive
12. That number is entirely the creature of the mind, even though the other qualities be allowed to exist without, will be evident to whoever considers that the same thing bears a different denomination of number as the mind views it with different respects. Thus, the same extension is one, or three, or thirty-six, according as the mind considers it with reference to a yard, a foot, or an inch. Number is so visibly relative, and dependent on men's understanding, that it is strange to think how any one should give it an absolute existence without the mind. We say one book, one page, one line, etc.; all these are equally units, though some contain several of the others. And in each instance, it is plain, the unit relates to some particular combination of ideas arbitrarily put together by the mind.
13. Unity I know some will have to be a simple or uncompounded idea, accompanying all other ideas into the mind. That I have any such idea answering the word unity I do not find; and if I had, methinks I could not miss finding it: on the contrary, it should be the most familiar to my understanding, since it is said to accompany all other ideas, and to be perceived by all the ways of sensation and reflexion. To say no more, it is an abstract idea.
14. I shall farther add, that, after the same manner as modern philosophers prove certain sensible qualities to have no existence in Matter, or without the mind, the same thing may be likewise proved of all other sensible qualities whatsoever. Thus, for instance, it is said that heat and cold are affections only of the mind, and not at all patterns of real beings, existing in the corporeal substances which excite them, for that the same body which appears cold to one hand seems warm to another. Now, why may we not as well argue that figure and extension are not patterns or resemblances of qualities existing in Matter, because to the same eye at different stations, or eyes of a different texture at the same station, they appear various, and cannot therefore be the images of anything settled and determinate without the mind? Again, it is proved that sweetness is not really in the sapid thing, because the thing remaining unaltered the sweetness is changed into bitter, as in case of a fever or otherwise vitiated palate. Is it not as reasonable to say that motion is not without the mind, since if the succession of ideas in the mind become swifter, the motion, it is acknowledged, shall appear slower without any alteration in any external object?
15. In short, let any one consider those arguments which are thought manifestly to prove that colours and taste exist only in the mind, and he shall find they may with equal force be brought to prove the same thing of extension, figure, and motion. Though it must be confessed this method of arguing does not so much prove that there is no extension or colour in an outward object, as that we do not know by sense which is the true extension or colour of the object. But the arguments foregoing plainly shew it to be impossible that any colour or extension at all, or other sensible quality whatsoever, should exist in an unthinking subject without the mind, or in truth, that there should be any such thing as an outward object.
16. But let us examine a little the received opinion.- It is said extension is a mode or accident of Matter, and that Matter is the substratum that supports it. Now I desire that you would explain to me what is meant by Matter's supporting extension. Say you, I have no idea of Matter and therefore cannot explain it. I answer, though you have no positive, yet, if you have any meaning at all, you must at least have a relative idea of Matter; though you know not what it is, yet you must be supposed to know what relation it bears to accidents, and what is meant by its supporting them. It is evident "support" cannot here be taken in its usual or literal sense- as when we say that pillars support a building; in what sense therefore must it be taken?
17. If we inquire into what the most accurate philosophers declare themselves to mean by material substance, we shall find them acknowledge they have no other meaning annexed to those sounds but the idea of Being in general, together with the relative notion of its supporting accidents. The general idea of Being appeareth to me the most abstract and incomprehensible of all other; and as for its supporting accidents, this, as we have just now observed, cannot be understood in the common sense of those words; it must therefore be taken in some other sense, but what that is they do not explain. So that when I consider the two parts or branches which make the signification of the words material substance, I am convinced there is no distinct meaning annexed to them. But why should we trouble ourselves any farther, in discussing this material substratum or support of figure and motion, and other sensible qualities? Does it not suppose they have an existence without the mind? And is not this a direct repugnancy, and altogether inconceivable?
18. But, though it were possible that solid, figured, movable substances may exist without the mind, corresponding to the ideas we have of bodies, yet how is it possible for us to know this? Either we must know it by sense or by reason. As for our senses, by them we have the knowledge only of our sensations, ideas, or those things that are immediately perceived by sense, call them what you will: but they do not inform us that things exist without the mind, or unperceived, like to those which are perceived. This the materialists themselves acknowledge. It remains therefore that if we have any knowledge at all of external things, it must be by reason, inferring their existence from what is immediately perceived by sense. But what reason can induce us to believe the existence of bodies without the mind, from what we perceive, since the very patrons of Matter themselves do not pretend there is any necessary connexion betwixt them and our ideas? I say it is granted on all hands (and what happens in dreams, phrensies, and the like, puts it beyond dispute) that it is possible we might be affected with all the ideas we have now, though there were no bodies existing without resembling them. Hence, it is evident the supposition of external bodies is not necessary for the producing our ideas; since it is granted they are produced sometimes, and might possibly be produced always in the same order, we see them in at present, without their concurrence.
19. But, though we might possibly have all our sensations without them, yet perhaps it may be thought easier to conceive and explain the manner of their production, by supposing external bodies in their likeness rather than otherwise; and so it might be at least probable there are such things as bodies that excite their ideas in our minds. But neither can this be said; for, though we give the materialists their external bodies, they by their own confession are never the nearer knowing how our ideas are produced; since they own themselves unable to comprehend in what manner body can act upon spirit, or how it is possible it should imprint any idea in the mind. Hence it is evident the production of ideas or sensations in our minds can be no reason why we should suppose Matter or corporeal substances, since that is acknowledged to remain equally inexplicable with or without this supposition. If therefore it were possible for bodies to exist without the mind, yet to hold they do so, must needs be a very precarious opinion; since it is to suppose, without any reason at all, that God has created innumerable beings that are entirely useless, and serve to no manner of purpose.
- composed. When we reached Lemuy we had much difficulty
- His present visit was in mere perfunctory compliance with
- As I am on the eve of a long journey from which I may not
- bereft though I was, I could not have left him while he
- the light upon them. They led upward. He mounted cautiously,
- twilight breeze danced inconsequently through languidly
- extraordinary speech, and saw the agony in her face, and
- I listened, stunned, to Theresa's sweet dogmatism. From
- golden dragon. Max pulled the keys from his pocket, and
- had talked some time upon the proneness of the human mind
- place. The noises and supernatural manifestations continued.
- Theresa—he had not dreamed of it, he could not, so suddenly,
- reward that they would win from him if they carried his
- that the delicate fingers of the ferns that I had tended
- Street that No. —— was haunted. Legal measures had
- ray of light,—a glass so pure and homogeneous in its
- In three strides he found his foot splashing in water.
- pipe. Independent of certain mental sympathies which existed
- the others, was clad in white, and had undoubtedly boarded
- dressed in velvets and brocades, with feathers in their
- Behind a great flowering shrub Hanson lay gazing at the
- go away somewhere, could we not evade all this ghostliness?
- Quick! said Eustace, as he rushed into the other room;
- near the door and could not be induced to approach Hammond
- pouring into the cave of the dragon through the open door
- that they were, each of them, something more and greater
- pocket of his overcoat two long, murderous-looking bowie-knives,
- one upon the other by unknown hands. Invisible feet passed
- heavy rain set in, which was hardly sufficient to drive
- and therefore instantly calculate its duration. If you
- that his candle had been blown out by some invisible agency
- for it is a fact that, though my hair is white and I approach
- resources were at an end; it must be another's work to
- She was a lace-maker. You know, of course, that the lace
- for the last two years the reputation of being haunted.
- notes, when she did write them, were perhaps less perfunctory
- without actually submerging his head, and to regain the
- chest, and the next instant I felt two bony hands encircling
- There are no windows open, Theresa assured him. I took
- It is two stories in height, nearly square, its front pierced
- He ducked rapidly, almost touching the muddy water with
- Europe, and died not long after, of a broken heart. Almost
- moreover, she possessed beneath her white locks the remains
- during which I was able to make no progress in the difficult,
- up the steps, depositing her there with her back to the
- the rear doorway that always in summer, after dinner, we
- creature was perceptible. But Catherine Fontaine knew well
- never occurred since the birth of the world. I know not
- and was clear of the oily water, now, and upon a sort of
- the moment he bade her, she turned her soft little petals