the road having been cut with much care on the side of
4. It is indeed an opinion strangely prevailing amongst men, that houses, mountains, rivers, and in a word all sensible objects, have an existence, natural or real, distinct from their being perceived by the understanding. But, with how great an assurance and acquiescence soever this principle may be entertained in the world, yet whoever shall find in his heart to call it in question may, if I mistake not, perceive it to involve a manifest contradiction. For, what are the fore-mentioned objects but the things we perceive by sense? and what do we perceive besides our own ideas or sensations? and is it not plainly repugnant that any one of these, or any combination of them, should exist unperceived?
5. If we thoroughly examine this tenet it will, perhaps, be found at bottom to depend on the doctrine of abstract ideas. For can there be a nicer strain of abstraction than to distinguish the existence of sensible objects from their being perceived, so as to conceive them existing unperceived? Light and colours, heat and cold, extension and figures- in a word the things we see and feel- what are they but so many sensations, notions, ideas, or impressions on the sense? and is it possible to separate, even in thought, any of these from perception? For my part, I might as easily divide a thing from itself. I may, indeed, divide in my thoughts, or conceive apart from each other, those things which, perhaps I never perceived by sense so divided. Thus, I imagine the trunk of a human body without the limbs, or conceive the smell of a rose without thinking on the rose itself. So far, I will not deny, I can abstract- if that may properly be called abstraction which extends only to the conceiving separately such objects as it is possible may really exist or be actually perceived asunder. But my conceiving or imagining power does not extend beyond the possibility of real existence or perception. Hence, as it is impossible for me to see or feel anything without an actual sensation of that thing, so is it impossible for me to conceive in my thoughts any sensible thing or object distinct from the sensation or perception of it.
6. Some truths there are so near and obvious to the mind that a man need only open his eyes to see them. Such I take this important one to be, viz., that all the choir of heaven and furniture of the earth, in a word all those bodies which compose the mighty frame of the world, have not any subsistence without a mind, that their being is to be perceived or known; that consequently so long as they are not actually perceived by me, or do not exist in my mind or that of any other created spirit, they must either have no existence at all, or else subsist in the mind of some Eternal Spirit- it being perfectly unintelligible, and involving all the absurdity of abstraction, to attribute to any single part of them an existence independent of a spirit. To be convinced of which, the reader need only reflect, and try to separate in his own thoughts the being of a sensible thing from its being perceived.
7. From what has been said it follows there is not any other Substance than Spirit, or that which perceives. But, for the fuller proof of this point, let it be considered the sensible qualities are colour, figure, motion, smell, taste, etc., i.e. the ideas perceived by sense. Now, for an idea to exist in an unperceiving thing is a manifest contradiction, for to have an idea is all one as to perceive; that therefore wherein colour, figure, and the like qualities exist must perceive them; hence it is clear there can be no unthinking substance or substratum of those ideas.
8. But, say you, though the ideas themselves do not exist without the mind, yet there may be things like them, whereof they are copies or resemblances, which things exist without the mind in an unthinking substance. I answer, an idea can be like nothing but an idea; a colour or figure can be like nothing but another colour or figure. If we look but never so little into our thoughts, we shall find it impossible for us to conceive a likeness except only between our ideas. Again, I ask whether those supposed originals or external things, of which our ideas are the pictures or representations, be themselves perceivable or no? If they are, then they are ideas and we have gained our point; but if you say they are not, I appeal to any one whether it be sense to assert a colour is like something which is invisible; hard or soft, like something which is intangible; and so of the rest.
9. Some there are who make a distinction betwixt primary and secondary qualities. By the former they mean extension, figure, motion, rest, solidity or impenetrability, and number; by the latter they denote all other sensible qualities, as colours, sounds, tastes, and so forth. The ideas we have of these they acknowledge not to be the resemblances of anything existing without the mind, or unperceived, but they will have our ideas of the primary qualities to be patterns or images of things which exist without the mind, in an unthinking substance which they call Matter. By Matter, therefore, we are to understand an inert, senseless substance, in which extension, figure, and motion do actually subsist. But it is evident from what we have already shown, that extension, figure, and motion are only ideas existing in the mind, and that an idea can be like nothing but another idea, and that consequently neither they nor their archetypes can exist in an unperceiving substance. Hence, it is plain that that the very notion of what is called Matter or corporeal substance, involves a contradiction in it.
10. They who assert that figure, motion, and the rest of the primary or original qualities do exist without the mind in unthinking substances, do at the same time acknowledge that colours, sounds, heat cold, and suchlike secondary qualities, do not- which they tell us are sensations existing in the mind alone, that depend on and are occasioned by the different size, texture, and motion of the minute particles of matter. This they take for an undoubted truth, which they can demonstrate beyond all exception. Now, if it be certain that those original qualities are inseparably united with the other sensible qualities, and not, even in thought, capable of being abstracted from them, it plainly follows that they exist only in the mind. But I desire any one to reflect and try whether he can, by any abstraction of thought, conceive the extension and motion of a body without all other sensible qualities. For my own part, I see evidently that it is not in my power to frame an idea of a body extended and moving, but I must withal give it some colour or other sensible quality which is acknowledged to exist only in the mind. In short, extension, figure, and motion, abstracted from all other qualities, are inconceivable. Where therefore the other sensible qualities are, there must these be also, to wit, in the mind and nowhere else.
11. Again, great and small, swift and slow, are allowed to exist nowhere without the mind, being entirely relative, and changing as the frame or position of the organs of sense varies. The extension therefore which exists without the mind is neither great nor small, the motion neither swift nor slow, that is, they are nothing at all. But, say you, they are extension in general, and motion in general: thus we see how much the tenet of extended movable substances existing without the mind depends on the strange doctrine of abstract ideas. And here I cannot but remark how nearly the vague and indeterminate description of Matter or corporeal substance, which the modern philosophers are run into by their own principles, resembles that antiquated and so much ridiculed notion of materia prima, to be met with in Aristotle and his followers. Without extension solidity cannot be conceived; since therefore it has been shewn that extension exists not in an unthinking substance, the same must also be true of solidity.
- a pound of sugar or an ordinary knife. No individual possessed
- Waller or Ovid. Poor Nancy! from the midst of far-off years
- that Lady Esmond was obliged not to show her love for her
- devotion, which his beloved Jesuit priest had inspired
- which swirled fully three feet of water, which, slowly
- Esmond on the night of his visit; and often of a night
- and to find this worshipped being was but a clumsy idol:
- was with a little brother who complained of headache, and
- him sped the yellow figure, and right to the end. The seemingly
- voice, and a reeling gait. The management of the house,
- little chair by the great fireplace opposite to the corner
- wife was an ugly shrew, as he remembered to have heard
- was anxious to examine a reported coal-mine which turned
- cries my lady, with blue eyes looking a celestial kindness:
- how unhappy his adored lady’s life was, and that a secret
- Tangier, with whom, as she couldn’t speak a word of my
- to sleep, rose and wandered out into the garden. The Hon.
- My clerk Nahum lodges with them — I can never go into
- Harry Esmond stood in so great fear of my lord, that he
- and Strephon snoring unheeding; or vice versa, ’tis poor
- Even as he realized the fact, the quarry vanished, and
- the smithy, whose red cheeks but a month ago he had been
- them, and of the softness into which it betrayed him; and
- my lord said —“and be hanged to them that told her!—
- (an odd red-breasted little bird, which inhabits the thick
- staring after her. Indeed, he scarce seemed to see until
- and to hold his stirrup as he descended from horseback.
- feet get but little thanks. Some of us never feel this
- said that his boys were resting and gaining strength after
- face and eager look wherewith, after this intelligence,
- But as she advanced towards Esmond from the corner where
- to watch the changes, and with a solicitous affection to
- was scarcely superior to an English cottager. At night
- lord, at which her ladyship hung down her head and looked
- “We are not in a popish country; and a sick man doth
- stable: take any one except my hack and the bay gelding
- all the inhabitants came down to the beach to see us pitch
- he write Latin so well as Tom, though he could talk it
- lost his thousands, embarks a few guineas upon the next
- buy your ladyship a coach and a couple of horses that will
- that she might honestly give him the answer that he demanded.
- sort of rage of pity, and seeing them on the face of the
- My lady looked at him with some surprise, and instantly
- Beatrix chattered French prettily, from a very early age;
- the leadership of each to men whom he believed that he
- fair features of the Viscountess of Castlewood; whereas,
- “She is as honest as any woman in England, and as pure
- only known to herself, at least never mentioned to any
- Obviously, the tide was rising; and, after seeking vainly
- “Madam,” said Mr. Esmond, “Ahasuerus was the Grand