coast. From this first slope the view of the extensive
12. That number is entirely the creature of the mind, even though the other qualities be allowed to exist without, will be evident to whoever considers that the same thing bears a different denomination of number as the mind views it with different respects. Thus, the same extension is one, or three, or thirty-six, according as the mind considers it with reference to a yard, a foot, or an inch. Number is so visibly relative, and dependent on men's understanding, that it is strange to think how any one should give it an absolute existence without the mind. We say one book, one page, one line, etc.; all these are equally units, though some contain several of the others. And in each instance, it is plain, the unit relates to some particular combination of ideas arbitrarily put together by the mind.
13. Unity I know some will have to be a simple or uncompounded idea, accompanying all other ideas into the mind. That I have any such idea answering the word unity I do not find; and if I had, methinks I could not miss finding it: on the contrary, it should be the most familiar to my understanding, since it is said to accompany all other ideas, and to be perceived by all the ways of sensation and reflexion. To say no more, it is an abstract idea.
14. I shall farther add, that, after the same manner as modern philosophers prove certain sensible qualities to have no existence in Matter, or without the mind, the same thing may be likewise proved of all other sensible qualities whatsoever. Thus, for instance, it is said that heat and cold are affections only of the mind, and not at all patterns of real beings, existing in the corporeal substances which excite them, for that the same body which appears cold to one hand seems warm to another. Now, why may we not as well argue that figure and extension are not patterns or resemblances of qualities existing in Matter, because to the same eye at different stations, or eyes of a different texture at the same station, they appear various, and cannot therefore be the images of anything settled and determinate without the mind? Again, it is proved that sweetness is not really in the sapid thing, because the thing remaining unaltered the sweetness is changed into bitter, as in case of a fever or otherwise vitiated palate. Is it not as reasonable to say that motion is not without the mind, since if the succession of ideas in the mind become swifter, the motion, it is acknowledged, shall appear slower without any alteration in any external object?
15. In short, let any one consider those arguments which are thought manifestly to prove that colours and taste exist only in the mind, and he shall find they may with equal force be brought to prove the same thing of extension, figure, and motion. Though it must be confessed this method of arguing does not so much prove that there is no extension or colour in an outward object, as that we do not know by sense which is the true extension or colour of the object. But the arguments foregoing plainly shew it to be impossible that any colour or extension at all, or other sensible quality whatsoever, should exist in an unthinking subject without the mind, or in truth, that there should be any such thing as an outward object.
16. But let us examine a little the received opinion.- It is said extension is a mode or accident of Matter, and that Matter is the substratum that supports it. Now I desire that you would explain to me what is meant by Matter's supporting extension. Say you, I have no idea of Matter and therefore cannot explain it. I answer, though you have no positive, yet, if you have any meaning at all, you must at least have a relative idea of Matter; though you know not what it is, yet you must be supposed to know what relation it bears to accidents, and what is meant by its supporting them. It is evident "support" cannot here be taken in its usual or literal sense- as when we say that pillars support a building; in what sense therefore must it be taken?
17. If we inquire into what the most accurate philosophers declare themselves to mean by material substance, we shall find them acknowledge they have no other meaning annexed to those sounds but the idea of Being in general, together with the relative notion of its supporting accidents. The general idea of Being appeareth to me the most abstract and incomprehensible of all other; and as for its supporting accidents, this, as we have just now observed, cannot be understood in the common sense of those words; it must therefore be taken in some other sense, but what that is they do not explain. So that when I consider the two parts or branches which make the signification of the words material substance, I am convinced there is no distinct meaning annexed to them. But why should we trouble ourselves any farther, in discussing this material substratum or support of figure and motion, and other sensible qualities? Does it not suppose they have an existence without the mind? And is not this a direct repugnancy, and altogether inconceivable?
18. But, though it were possible that solid, figured, movable substances may exist without the mind, corresponding to the ideas we have of bodies, yet how is it possible for us to know this? Either we must know it by sense or by reason. As for our senses, by them we have the knowledge only of our sensations, ideas, or those things that are immediately perceived by sense, call them what you will: but they do not inform us that things exist without the mind, or unperceived, like to those which are perceived. This the materialists themselves acknowledge. It remains therefore that if we have any knowledge at all of external things, it must be by reason, inferring their existence from what is immediately perceived by sense. But what reason can induce us to believe the existence of bodies without the mind, from what we perceive, since the very patrons of Matter themselves do not pretend there is any necessary connexion betwixt them and our ideas? I say it is granted on all hands (and what happens in dreams, phrensies, and the like, puts it beyond dispute) that it is possible we might be affected with all the ideas we have now, though there were no bodies existing without resembling them. Hence, it is evident the supposition of external bodies is not necessary for the producing our ideas; since it is granted they are produced sometimes, and might possibly be produced always in the same order, we see them in at present, without their concurrence.
19. But, though we might possibly have all our sensations without them, yet perhaps it may be thought easier to conceive and explain the manner of their production, by supposing external bodies in their likeness rather than otherwise; and so it might be at least probable there are such things as bodies that excite their ideas in our minds. But neither can this be said; for, though we give the materialists their external bodies, they by their own confession are never the nearer knowing how our ideas are produced; since they own themselves unable to comprehend in what manner body can act upon spirit, or how it is possible it should imprint any idea in the mind. Hence it is evident the production of ideas or sensations in our minds can be no reason why we should suppose Matter or corporeal substances, since that is acknowledged to remain equally inexplicable with or without this supposition. If therefore it were possible for bodies to exist without the mind, yet to hold they do so, must needs be a very precarious opinion; since it is to suppose, without any reason at all, that God has created innumerable beings that are entirely useless, and serve to no manner of purpose.
- barter. Money was scarcely worth anything, but their eagerness
- the old buildings have heavy walls. But if you want to
- as love and attachment, divorce, and making a family work.
- photographed with Shelton: Maybe he's afraid if the strobes
- than the manners of these people. They generally began
- lot of money free-lancing. Even 15 years ago, I never made
- a house in New Rochelle as well as the Westside apartment
- Leinsdorf's replacement before they decided on the one
- in all the finer points of big game hunting. Of an evening
- while a high school freshman, doing chores in exchange
- A perennial name on the best-dressed list, Short says that
- a whole lot to do with Wally, said Dick, pouring me a
- the catacombs. Max glanced at the white face of Helen Cumberly,
- With a mischievous smile he adds: As a matter of fact,
- in an hour-long interview, Buddy's complex personality
- floodlights. For a few seconds the television audience
- church bell by guess. The arrival of our boats was a rare
- musically. He had no tricks, except that he had a certain
- she somehow gives the impression of being in a great hurry.
- remember leaving the studio and walking up Sixth Avenue
- barter. Money was scarcely worth anything, but their eagerness
- Bite, Shawn plays the role of Lieutenant Ferguson, who
- history of the city reflected in the people who have come
- for the four performances that he's had to go on for me,
- had come across his northerly camp and he feared that they
- vision about the music. He made everybody sing or play
- he chuckles, revealing his famous offbeat humor. They
- morning in a hotel, I called up the room service and said,
- golden dragon. Max pulled the keys from his pocket, and
- autobiography, she is working on some short stories. Two
- Doing the play takes all my energy.I'm a single woman
- in seniority and will be seventh in the next Congress.
- For three weeks Hanson had remained. During this time he
- Maureen shows me around her large, beautiful apartment
- In his Princeton study he is kept constantly busy composing
- anchoring it. … But I'm not as calm as I might appear.
- The wide heavens about her seemed to promise a greater
- a tiny fraction of what singers receive at other great
- — a piece of music titled Tournament Overture for Flute,
- vast amount of rehearsal time needed to perfect new works
- He divided his small following into two parties, entrusting
- of the 1960s. Their 10 albums sold in the millions, and
- the same wording. But just today I got a very good review
- in a voice as rough as sandpaper, is that during the season
- Into the disc of light, leaped, fantastic, the witch figure
- so the girls can finally return home. … I was so impressed
- Europe's foremost opera house — the Italian press labeled
- I don't seem to understand why everyone thinks the East
- could trust. To them he explained his plans and the rich
- Among the more dramatic moments is a tape of the Seventh